Smart Audit Monitoring building structure is an IoT based application to make buildings smart enough to provide its health data to user and replace manual audit process of poor concrete building structure.
- During new construction, various sensors are installed inside concrete structure to measure key parameters such as temperature variation, strength of concrete, and cracks presents inside structure as suggested by (Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs).
- The collected data is sent to IoT cloud platform via wireless modules. Based on data processed and analyzed over a certain time period, structural condition of building can be predicted and immediate action can be taken without waiting for manual onsite testing.
- With increasing growth in demand for real estate, construction of real estate has been at peak. With race among real estate constructor to supply the increasing demand, unfortunately the quality has been degraded to a great extent.
- Moreover, there is manual process for auditing which can be flawed by human errors. There have been many cases in my area where building collapse has taken countless life of innocents.
- This is where the idea of “SMART AUDIT OF REAL ESTATE” clicked in where the building itself provides its health data to government or secretary of society or individual of the society to take necessary action before any mishaps.
- This idea includes using Internet of Things at construction level or present structure where we install necessary sensors and equipment to monitor health of building.
- The data is transmitted wirelessly to the cloud which can be monitored and analyzed by each individual. This can be a checkpoint for people while buying a new property.
- Moreover, it solves the problem of manual auditing of buildings and provides data to cloud integration platform which will track status of structure.
B. WORKING PRINCIPLE
There are 8-10 steps carried out during audit process of a building structure. Two most important steps are measurement of quality of concrete and corrosion of steel rods used in structure.
A) Ultrasonic Pulse Width Oscillator:
- This method uses a transmitter device which sends high frequency wave to receiver. Transmitter and receiver are placed between concrete walls. The distance between concrete structure is known as ‘D’, the time taken by wave from transmitter to receiver through concrete structure is measured as ‘T’.
- Hence Velocity of wave inside concrete is calculated using formula V=D/T. These sensors are installed at different level and position inside building structure and through algorithm and average data is recorded sent data are timely to IoT cloud platform for monitoring.
B) Monitoring steel corrosion using half cell potential technique:
- The half-cell potential test is the only corrosion monitoring technique standardized by ASTM. It is used to determine the probability of corrosion within the rebar in reinforced concrete structures.
- A reference electrode is connected to the other half-cell represented by the embedded rebar. By connecting that reference electrode to the reinforcing steel and placing the reference electrode on the surface of the concrete, it is possible to measure the potential difference between the two half-cells.
- ASTM C876 provides a guideline on how this measurement can be undertaken, and the relationship between the measured potential values and the corrosion probability.
- Similarly these data through wireless sensor and internet will be uploaded into IoT cloud platform.
- Each part of concrete will be attached with low power RFID device; this will help determine cracks or irregularity present in exact position. Similar technology is already been implemented in ‘Statue of Unity’ at Sardar Sarovar Dam, Kevadia, Gujarat.
- Through this innovation we are enabling each building to become smart to provide its health data to concerned person and converting the manual auditing process to SMART MONITORING through integration of sensors.
- Once device is installed inside building structure, condition of concrete and its strength can be measures periodically.
- This will help municipal cooperation engineers to track condition of poor quality building structure at exact location through cloud data analytics.
- Moreover, this will help to back track vendors who sourced the raw material and necessary legal action can be taken, eventually leading to reduction in degradation of quality of raw material in the market and making real estate safer for living.
- The system includes three major blocks viz. Sensors, communication modules, and cloud. Most of the sensors are standard and are approved as per government standards.
- Communication modules include wifi or GPRS modules, along with local storage.
- Manufacturing device, sensors and installation can be done at reasonable cost during construction or to a present structure. Idea can be considered under SMART INDIA and Digital INDIA initiative to empower building Smart buildings initiative.
E. VIABLE MARKET
- Smart Audit Real Estates: From 2011 to 2015, the residential construction market dominated the construction landscape of India.
- The Timetric Report “Construction in India: Key Trends and Opportunities, 2020” predicts that the residential construction market will expand further in the next five years. It will hold a 30.6% market share in 2020.
- Indian Real Estate sector is expected to reach a market size of US$ 180 bn by 2020 and US$ 1 tn by 2030. Its contribution to the country’s GDP is expected to be approximately 13%.
- India’s construction industry is expected to grow at an annual average of 6.6% between 2019 and 2028 (source: MakeinIndia.com).
- So each new real estate constructions can be a smart health monitoring building which provides its health report to government periodically.
- Schools, mall, public places has to be full proof. Person feels safer as they know they are in safe place.
- Not only buildings, but bridges, railways platforms etc any place which is building using concretes the market.
- Every society can monitor their data and can take necessary action at individual stage.